As a first step in creating these new dependent variables, the SFFE scores for smiling and frowning were calculated for each rated picture. This scale is simple to administer and score in class and yields scores on positive and negative affect. These studies have been criticized, however, because subjects might have been aware that their faces were being arranged into frowns and smiles and may have been responding to experimental demand characteristics. This study sought to examine whether inhibiting facial expression influences emotional experience, particularly when participants are unaware that their facial expressions are being manipulated. One explanation for the diverging results could be that the present Experiment 2 was specifically designed to evaluate possible differences between enhancing and attenuating modulation. They have attracted staunch supporters as well as vehement critics. It has been suggested that the treatment of nasal muscles would reduce the ability of the person to form a disgust response which could offer a reduction of symptoms associated with obsessive compulsive disorder.
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How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?
This research is perhaps best exemplified by the now classic study by Strack, Martin, and Stepperwhich found that asking participants to generate smile-related expressions led them to report enhanced positive affect, whereas having them inhibit smile-related expressions by activating opposing muscles weakened positive affect. The effects of expressive behavior on the quality of emotional experience". An essential part of expressing anger is to frown and this action was not included in the study by Strack et al. Second, these automatic reactions affect voluntary facial actions by facilitating congruent actions. Thus, due to this interdependency between the factors it was not possible to simultaneously evaluate the effects in a three-factorial analysis of variance. These are significant findings because science for the most part has accepted the six basic categories, which may have limited other important research about humans and how we process emotions.